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Como alterar a cor de saída do echo no Linux

Posted on: June 09, 2023 06:53 PM

Posted by: Renato

Views: 317

Como alterar a cor de saída do echo no Linux

You can use these ANSI escape codes:

Black        0;30     Dark Gray     1;30
Red          0;31     Light Red     1;31
Green        0;32     Light Green   1;32
Brown/Orange 0;33     Yellow        1;33
Blue         0;34     Light Blue    1;34
Purple       0;35     Light Purple  1;35
Cyan         0;36     Light Cyan    1;36
Light Gray   0;37     White         1;37

And then use them like this in your script:

#    .---------- constant part!
#    vvvv vvvv-- the code from above
RED='\033[0;31m'
NC='\033[0m' # No Color
printf "I ${RED}love${NC} Stack Overflow\n"

which prints love in red.

From @james-lim's comment, if you are using the echo command, be sure to use the -e flag to allow backslash escapes.

#    .---------- constant part!
#    vvvv vvvv-- the code from above
RED='\033[0;31m'
NC='\033[0m' # No Color
echo -e "I ${RED}love${NC} Stack Overflow"

Note: Don't add "\n" when using echo unless you want to add an additional empty line.

some variables that you can use:

# Reset
Color_Off='\033[0m'       # Text Reset

# Regular Colors
Black='\033[0;30m'        # Black
Red='\033[0;31m'          # Red
Green='\033[0;32m'        # Green
Yellow='\033[0;33m'       # Yellow
Blue='\033[0;34m'         # Blue
Purple='\033[0;35m'       # Purple
Cyan='\033[0;36m'         # Cyan
White='\033[0;37m'        # White

# Bold
BBlack='\033[1;30m'       # Black
BRed='\033[1;31m'         # Red
BGreen='\033[1;32m'       # Green
BYellow='\033[1;33m'      # Yellow
BBlue='\033[1;34m'        # Blue
BPurple='\033[1;35m'      # Purple
BCyan='\033[1;36m'        # Cyan
BWhite='\033[1;37m'       # White

# Underline
UBlack='\033[4;30m'       # Black
URed='\033[4;31m'         # Red
UGreen='\033[4;32m'       # Green
UYellow='\033[4;33m'      # Yellow
UBlue='\033[4;34m'        # Blue
UPurple='\033[4;35m'      # Purple
UCyan='\033[4;36m'        # Cyan
UWhite='\033[4;37m'       # White

# Background
On_Black='\033[40m'       # Black
On_Red='\033[41m'         # Red
On_Green='\033[42m'       # Green
On_Yellow='\033[43m'      # Yellow
On_Blue='\033[44m'        # Blue
On_Purple='\033[45m'      # Purple
On_Cyan='\033[46m'        # Cyan
On_White='\033[47m'       # White

# High Intensity
IBlack='\033[0;90m'       # Black
IRed='\033[0;91m'         # Red
IGreen='\033[0;92m'       # Green
IYellow='\033[0;93m'      # Yellow
IBlue='\033[0;94m'        # Blue
IPurple='\033[0;95m'      # Purple
ICyan='\033[0;96m'        # Cyan
IWhite='\033[0;97m'       # White

# Bold High Intensity
BIBlack='\033[1;90m'      # Black
BIRed='\033[1;91m'        # Red
BIGreen='\033[1;92m'      # Green
BIYellow='\033[1;93m'     # Yellow
BIBlue='\033[1;94m'       # Blue
BIPurple='\033[1;95m'     # Purple
BICyan='\033[1;96m'       # Cyan
BIWhite='\033[1;97m'      # White

# High Intensity backgrounds
On_IBlack='\033[0;100m'   # Black
On_IRed='\033[0;101m'     # Red
On_IGreen='\033[0;102m'   # Green
On_IYellow='\033[0;103m'  # Yellow
On_IBlue='\033[0;104m'    # Blue
On_IPurple='\033[0;105m'  # Purple
On_ICyan='\033[0;106m'    # Cyan
On_IWhite='\033[0;107m'   # White

the escape character in bash, hex and octal respectively:

|       | bash  | hex     | octal   | NOTE                         |
|-------+-------+---------+---------+------------------------------|
| start | \e    | \x1b    | \033    |                              |
| start | \E    | \x1B    | -       | x cannot be capital          |
| end   | \e[0m | \x1b[0m | \033[0m |                              |
| end   | \e[m  | \x1b[m  | \033[m  | 0 is appended if you omit it |
|       |       |         |         |                              |

short example:

| color       | bash         | hex            | octal          | NOTE                                  |
|-------------+--------------+----------------+----------------+---------------------------------------|
| start green | \e[32m<text> | \x1b[32m<text> | \033[32m<text> | m is NOT optional                     |
| reset       | <text>\e[0m  | <text>\1xb[0m  | <text>\033[om  | o is optional (do it as best practice |
|             |              |                |                |                                       |

bash exception:

If you are going to use these codes in your special bash variables

  • PS0
  • PS1
  • PS2 (= this is for prompting)
  • PS4

you should add extra escape characters so that can interpret them correctly. Without this adding extra escape characters it works but you will face problems when you use Ctrl + r for search in your history.

exception rule for bash

You should add \[ before any starting ANSI code and add \] after any ending ones.
Example:
in regular usage: \033[32mThis is in green\033[0m
for PS0/1/2/4: \[\033[32m\]This is in green\[\033[m\]

\[ is for start of a sequence of non-printable characters
\] is for end of a sequence of non-printable characters

Tip: for memorize it you can first add \[\] and then put your ANSI code between them:

  • \[start-ANSI-code\]
  • \[end-ANSI-code\]

type of color sequence:

  1. 3/4 bit
  2. 8 bit
  3. 24 bit

Before diving into these colors, you should know about 4 modes with these codes:

1. color-mode

It modifies the style of color NOT text. For example make the color bright or darker.

  • 0 reset
  • 1; lighter than normal
  • 2; darker than normal

This mode is not supported widely. It is fully support on Gnome-Terminal.

2. text-mode

This mode is for modifying the style of text NOT color.

  • 3; italic
  • 4; underline
  • 5; blinking (slow)
  • 6; blinking (fast)
  • 7; reverse
  • 8; hide
  • 9; cross-out

and are almost supported.
For example KDE-Konsole supports 5; but Gnome-Terminal does not and Gnome supports 8; but KDE does not.

3. foreground mode

This mode is for colorizing the foreground.

4. background mode

This mode is for colorizing the background.

The below table shows a summary of 3/4 bit version of ANSI-color

|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
| color-mode | octal    | hex     | bash  | description      | example (= in octal)         | NOTE                                 |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
|          0 | \033[0m  | \x1b[0m | \e[0m | reset any affect | echo -e "\033[0m"            | 0m equals to m                       |
|          1 | \033[1m  |         |       | light (= bright) | echo -e "\033[1m####\033[m"  | -                                    |
|          2 | \033[2m  |         |       | dark (= fade)    | echo -e "\033[2m####\033[m"  | -                                    |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
|  text-mode | ~        |         |       | ~                | ~                            | ~                                    |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
|          3 | \033[3m  |         |       | italic           | echo -e "\033[3m####\033[m"  |                                      |
|          4 | \033[4m  |         |       | underline        | echo -e "\033[4m####\033[m"  |                                      |
|          5 | \033[5m  |         |       | blink (slow)     | echo -e "\033[3m####\033[m"  |                                      |
|          6 | \033[6m  |         |       | blink (fast)     | ?                            | not wildly support                   |
|          7 | \003[7m  |         |       | reverse          | echo -e "\033[7m####\033[m"  | it affects the background/foreground |
|          8 | \033[8m  |         |       | hide             | echo -e "\033[8m####\033[m"  | it affects the background/foreground |
|          9 | \033[9m  |         |       | cross            | echo -e "\033[9m####\033[m"  |                                      |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
| foreground | ~        |         |       | ~                | ~                            | ~                                    |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
|         30 | \033[30m |         |       | black            | echo -e "\033[30m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         31 | \033[31m |         |       | red              | echo -e "\033[31m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         32 | \033[32m |         |       | green            | echo -e "\033[32m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         33 | \033[33m |         |       | yellow           | echo -e "\033[33m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         34 | \033[34m |         |       | blue             | echo -e "\033[34m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         35 | \033[35m |         |       | purple           | echo -e "\033[35m####\033[m" | real name: magenta = reddish-purple  |
|         36 | \033[36m |         |       | cyan             | echo -e "\033[36m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         37 | \033[37m |         |       | white            | echo -e "\033[37m####\033[m" |                                      |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
|         38 | 8/24     |                    This is for special use of 8-bit or 24-bit                                            |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
| background | ~        |         |       | ~                | ~                            | ~                                    |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
|         40 | \033[40m |         |       | black            | echo -e "\033[40m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         41 | \033[41m |         |       | red              | echo -e "\033[41m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         42 | \033[42m |         |       | green            | echo -e "\033[42m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         43 | \033[43m |         |       | yellow           | echo -e "\033[43m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         44 | \033[44m |         |       | blue             | echo -e "\033[44m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         45 | \033[45m |         |       | purple           | echo -e "\033[45m####\033[m" | real name: magenta = reddish-purple  |
|         46 | \033[46m |         |       | cyan             | echo -e "\033[46m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         47 | \033[47m |         |       | white            | echo -e "\033[47m####\033[m" |                                      |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
|         48 | 8/24     |                    This is for special use of 8-bit or 24-bit                                            |                                                                                       |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|

The below table shows a summary of 8 bit version of ANSI-color

|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+------------------+------------------------------------+-------------------------|
| foreground | octal     | hex       | bash    | description      | example                            | NOTE                    |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+------------------+------------------------------------+-------------------------|
|        0-7 | \033[38;5 | \x1b[38;5 | \e[38;5 | standard. normal | echo -e '\033[38;5;1m####\033[m'   |                         |
|       8-15 |           |           |         | standard. light  | echo -e '\033[38;5;9m####\033[m'   |                         |
|     16-231 |           |           |         | more resolution  | echo -e '\033[38;5;45m####\033[m'  | has no specific pattern |
|    232-255 |           |           |         |                  | echo -e '\033[38;5;242m####\033[m' | from black to white     |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+------------------+------------------------------------+-------------------------|
| foreground | octal     | hex       | bash    | description      | example                            | NOTE                    |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+------------------+------------------------------------+-------------------------|
|        0-7 |           |           |         | standard. normal | echo -e '\033[48;5;1m####\033[m'   |                         |
|       8-15 |           |           |         | standard. light  | echo -e '\033[48;5;9m####\033[m'   |                         |
|     16-231 |           |           |         | more resolution  | echo -e '\033[48;5;45m####\033[m'  |                         |
|    232-255 |           |           |         |                  | echo -e '\033[48;5;242m####\033[m' | from black to white     |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+------------------+------------------------------------+-------------------------|

The 8-bit fast test:
for code in {0..255}; do echo -e "\e[38;05;${code}m $code: Test"; done

The below table shows a summary of 24 bit version of ANSI-color

|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+-------------+------------------------------------------+-----------------|
| foreground | octal     | hex       | bash    | description | example                                  | NOTE            |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+-------------+------------------------------------------+-----------------|
|      0-255 | \033[38;2 | \x1b[38;2 | \e[38;2 | R = red     | echo -e '\033[38;2;255;0;02m####\033[m'  | R=255, G=0, B=0 |
|      0-255 | \033[38;2 | \x1b[38;2 | \e[38;2 | G = green   | echo -e '\033[38;2;;0;255;02m####\033[m' | R=0, G=255, B=0 |
|      0-255 | \033[38;2 | \x1b[38;2 | \e[38;2 | B = blue    | echo -e '\033[38;2;0;0;2552m####\033[m'  | R=0, G=0, B=255 |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+-------------+------------------------------------------+-----------------|
| background | octal     | hex       | bash    | description | example                                  | NOTE            |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+-------------+------------------------------------------+-----------------|
|      0-255 | \033[48;2 | \x1b[48;2 | \e[48;2 | R = red     | echo -e '\033[48;2;255;0;02m####\033[m'  | R=255, G=0, B=0 |
|      0-255 | \033[48;2 | \x1b[48;2 | \e[48;2 | G = green   | echo -e '\033[48;2;;0;255;02m####\033[m' | R=0, G=255, B=0 |
|      0-255 | \033[48;2 | \x1b[48;2 | \e[48;2 | B = blue    | echo -e '\033[48;2;0;0;2552m####\033[m'  | R=0, G=0, B=255 |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+-------------+------------------------------------------+-----------------|

some screen-shots

foreground 8-bit summary in a .gif

foreground.gif

background 8-bit summary in a .gif

background.gif

color summary with their values

enter image description here enter image description here enter image description here enter image description here

blinking on KDE-Terminal

KDE-blinking

a simple `C` code that shows you more

cecho_screenshot

a more advanced tool that I developed to deal with these colors:

bline


color-mode shot

fade-normal-bright

text mode shot

only-text-mode

combining is OK

combine

more shots

 

Tips and Tricks for Advanced Users and Programmers:

Can we use these codes in a programming language?

Yes, you can. I experienced in , , , ,

Do they slow down the speed of a program?

I think, NO.

Can we use these on Windows?

3/4-bit Yes, if you compile the code with gcc
some screen-shots on Win-7

How to calculate the length of code?

\033[ = 2, other parts 1

Where can we use these codes?

Anywhere that has a tty interpreter
xterm, gnome-terminal, kde-terminal, mysql-client-CLI and so on.
For example if you want to colorize your output with mysql you can use Perl

#!/usr/bin/perl -n
print "\033[1m\033[31m$1\033[36m$2\033[32m$3\033[33m$4\033[m" while /([|+-]+)|([0-9]+)|([a-zA-Z_]+)|([^\w])/g;

store this code in a file name: pcc (= Perl Colorize Character) and then put the file a in valid PATH then use it anywhere you like.

ls | pcc
df | pcc

inside mysql first register it for pager and then try:

[user2:db2] pager pcc
PAGER set to 'pcc'
[user2:db2] select * from table-name;

pcc

It does NOT handle Unicode.

Do these codes only do colorizing?

No, they can do a lot of interesting things. Try:

echo -e '\033[2K'  # clear the screen and do not move the position

or:

echo -e '\033[2J\033[u' # clear the screen and reset the position

There are a lot of beginners that want to clear the screen with system( "clear" ) so you can use this instead of system(3) call

Are they available in Unicode?

Yes. \u001b

Which version of these colors is preferable?

It is easy to use 3/4-bit, but it is much accurate and beautiful to use 24-bit.
If you do not have experience with so here is a quick tutorial:
24 bits means: 00000000 and 00000000 and 00000000. Each 8-bit is for a specific color.
1..8 is for and 9..16 for and 17..24 for
So in #FF0000 means and here it is: 255;0;0
in #00FF00 means which here is: 0;255;0
Does that make sense? what color you want combine it with these three 8-bit values.

 

My riff on Tobias' answer:

# Color
RED='\033[0;31m'
GREEN='\033[0;32m'
YELLOW='\033[0;33m'
NC='\033[0m' # No Color

function red {
    printf "${RED}$@${NC}\n"
}

function green {
    printf "${GREEN}$@${NC}\n"
}

function yellow {
    printf "${YELLOW}$@${NC}\n"
}

$ echo $(red apple) $(yellow banana) $(green kiwi)
apple banana kiwi

A neat way to change color only for one echo is to define such function:

function coloredEcho(){
    local exp=$1;
    local color=$2;
    if ! [[ $color =~ '^[0-9]$' ]] ; then
       case $(echo $color | tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]') in
        black) color=0 ;;
        red) color=1 ;;
        green) color=2 ;;
        yellow) color=3 ;;
        blue) color=4 ;;
        magenta) color=5 ;;
        cyan) color=6 ;;
        white|*) color=7 ;; # white or invalid color
       esac
    fi
    tput setaf $color;
    echo $exp;
    tput sgr0;
}

Usage:

coloredEcho "This text is green" green

Or you could directly use color codes mentioned in Drew's answer:

coloredEcho "This text is green" 2

256 colors

enter image description here

enter image description here

Generated by this bash/zsh script:

function showcolors256() {
    local row col blockrow blockcol red green blue
    local showcolor=_showcolor256_${1:-bg}
    local white="\033[1;37m"
    local reset="\033[0m"

    echo -e "Set foreground color: \\\\033[38;5;${white}NNN${reset}m"
    echo -e "Set background color: \\\\033[48;5;${white}NNN${reset}m"
    echo -e "Reset color & style:  \\\\033[0m"
    echo

    echo 16 standard color codes:
    for row in {0..1}; do
        for col in {0..7}; do
            $showcolor $(( row*8 + col )) $row
        done
        echo
    done
    echo

    echo 6·6·6 RGB color codes:
    for blockrow in {0..2}; do
        for red in {0..5}; do
            for blockcol in {0..1}; do
                green=$(( blockrow*2 + blockcol ))
                for blue in {0..5}; do
                    $showcolor $(( red*36 + green*6 + blue + 16 )) $green
                done
                echo -n "  "
            done
            echo
        done
        echo
    done

    echo 24 grayscale color codes:
    for row in {0..1}; do
        for col in {0..11}; do
            $showcolor $(( row*12 + col + 232 )) $row
        done
        echo
    done
    echo
}

function _showcolor256_fg() {
    local code=$( printf %03d $1 )
    echo -ne "\033[38;5;${code}m"
    echo -nE " $code "
    echo -ne "\033[0m"
}

function _showcolor256_bg() {
    if (( $2 % 2 == 0 )); then
        echo -ne "\033[1;37m"
    else
        echo -ne "\033[0;30m"
    fi
    local code=$( printf %03d $1 )
    echo -ne "\033[48;5;${code}m"
    echo -nE " $code "
    echo -ne "\033[0m"
}

16 colors

enter image description here

Generated by this bash/zsh script:

function showcolors16() {
    _showcolor "\033[0;30m" "\033[1;30m" "\033[40m" "\033[100m"
    _showcolor "\033[0;31m" "\033[1;31m" "\033[41m" "\033[101m"
    _showcolor "\033[0;32m" "\033[1;32m" "\033[42m" "\033[102m"
    _showcolor "\033[0;33m" "\033[1;33m" "\033[43m" "\033[103m"
    _showcolor "\033[0;34m" "\033[1;34m" "\033[44m" "\033[104m"
    _showcolor "\033[0;35m" "\033[1;35m" "\033[45m" "\033[105m"
    _showcolor "\033[0;36m" "\033[1;36m" "\033[46m" "\033[106m"
    _showcolor "\033[0;37m" "\033[1;37m" "\033[47m" "\033[107m"
}

function _showcolor() {
    for code in $@; do
        echo -ne "$code"
        echo -nE "   $code"
        echo -ne "   \033[0m  "
    done
    echo
}
 

I found Shakiba Moshiri's awesome answer while I was looking info on that topic… then I had an idea… and it ended up in a quite nice function extremely easy to use 😁
So I've to share it 😉

https://github.com/ppo/bash-colors

Usage: $(c <flags>) inside an echo -e or printf

 ┌───────┬─────────────────┬──────────┐   ┌───────┬─────────────────┬──────────┐
 │ Code  │ Style           │ Octal    │   │ Code  │ Style           │ Octal    │
 ├───────┼─────────────────┼──────────┤   ├───────┼─────────────────┼──────────┤
 │   -   │ Foreground      │ \033[3.. │   │   B   │ Bold            │ \033[1m  │
 │   _   │ Background      │ \033[4.. │   │   U   │ Underline       │ \033[4m  │
 ├───────┼─────────────────┼──────────┤   │   F   │ Flash/blink     │ \033[5m  │
 │   k   │ Black           │ ......0m │   │   N   │ Negative        │ \033[7m  │
 │   r   │ Red             │ ......1m │   ├───────┼─────────────────┼──────────┤
 │   g   │ Green           │ ......2m │   │   L   │ Normal (unbold) │ \033[22m │
 │   y   │ Yellow          │ ......3m │   │   0   │ Reset           │ \033[0m  │
 │   b   │ Blue            │ ......4m │   └───────┴─────────────────┴──────────┘
 │   m   │ Magenta         │ ......5m │
 │   c   │ Cyan            │ ......6m │
 │   w   │ White           │ ......7m │
 └───────┴─────────────────┴──────────┘

Examples:

echo -e "$(c 0wB)Bold white$(c) and normal"
echo -e "Normal text… $(c r_yB)BOLD red text on yellow background… $(c _w)now on
  white background… $(c 0U) reset and underline… $(c) and back to normal."
 

reference:
Wikipedia
ANSI escape sequences
tldp.org
tldp.org
misc.flogisoft.com
 

- https://stackoverflow.com/questions/5947742/how-to-change-the-output-color-of-echo-in-linux

 
 

 

 


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